From Archeology & Art on Twitter, a necklace of gold and glass beads (for the toads’ eyes) from the Moche civilization of Peru. Unknown date except that the Moche clung to a narrow stretch of the Pacific coast in what is now northern Peru and for a brilliant six or so centuries existed from about AD 100 to 700, so this was made sometime in there. We can only guess at their demise. A thirty year super El Niño followed by a thirty year drought doubtless brought them to the brink, and then archeological evidence of civil war and—perhaps the final blow—attacks from the Huari civilization to the east (one of the succession of pre-Incan civilizations in the Peruvian highlands) seems to precede their final disappearance. Beyond the archeological evidence and supposition, though, little remains to us, such being the fate of non-literate civilizations. Instead all we can do is look at their extraordinary artwork, like these lovely little golden frogs, and wonder about the people who made them.


(January, 2016)

In the zero sum world of Facebook, where everything is either all right or all wrong, the crazy armed militia occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in Oregon is all wrong. It’s treason, it’s an act of war, it’s something that deserves to be bombed by the air force (sorry birds), or attacked by the army (sorry again, birds). Any surviving occupiers deserve immediate arrest and long term prison sentences. Some  want them hanged. Progressives can be just as ugly as Tea Partiers when they get riled up.

And while I am not in support of the Militia occupiers at all, the very first thing I thought of when I heard about it was the occupation of Alcatraz in 1969. It too was over grievances about land rights. A radicalized offshoot of the American Indian Movement calling themselves Indians of All Tribes (IOAT) got the idea to seize Alcatraz Island. It began with fourteen activists but as there was barely any attempt to stop them soon there were over 400 people, including children, on the island. John Trudell made daily radio broadcasts. This went on for nearly two years. Property was damaged, the place abused. Several buildings were burned down. The electricity and telephone service to the island was eventually cut. The occupiers began to leave. The final dozen or so were driven off by a large force of federal police that landed on June 11, 1971. There was no real opposition. I believe only one person died during the occupation, a young girl who tumbled to her death off a cliff in the fog. Very sad.

Strident demands by angry conservatives that the island be bombed or shelled or assaulted by US Marines with shoot to kill orders were ignored. The occupation had ended peaceably, with minimal force used.  There were no arrests. Damage to the island’s facilities by the occupiers came was in the millions of dollars. The graffiti is still visible.

Though perhaps largely forgotten, the occupation is considered a landmark event in New Left politics, and certainly one of the key steps in the growth of the American Indian Movement. It is part of the Progressive folklore, and as much a part of the Civil Rights era as the March on Selma. And while it achieved virtually none of its stated goals, President Nixon did stop the long running Indian Termination Policy, which had been an existential threat to Indian sovereignty. The federal government no longer terminates tribal recognition by decree. In fact, the current nation within a nation status that American Indian tribes have, with their own laws (and casinos….) can be traced back in many ways to the occupation of Alcatraz Island. The Indians raising hell on Alcatraz Island had a profound impact on the survival of the First Nations as independent tribes in the United States.

You may differ on the justifications with the forces of anarchy stomping around the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge looking (to us) like heavily armed fools, but when you decry occupation itself as a violent act of treason and demand Obama send in the air force to bomb the hell out of the place, you have far more in common with the hard right of the 1960’s than the New Left. The occupation in Oregon is pretty much a mirror image of the occupation of Alcatraz. But Facebook doesn’t do mirrors well.


Yankton Sioux


In the community grasslands in the middle of the Yankton Sioux reservation there is a herd of bison. We rounded a bend on the road and there they were, grazing and wandering. The land was communal and raw, wild and ancient. The grass grew high, South Dakota wild flowers were scattered about, and prairie dogs holes, and buffalo pies. We pulled the car off to the side of the road and watched the dynamics of this semi-wild herd. It was pretty sedentary that day, moving little, chewing, grazing, shaking off flies. A couple calves played tag. Vultures flew in wide circles, out of habit I guess. I doubt a bison had died and rotted there in ages, a feast for the birds. Meat’s meat and hide is hide and bones are ground into fertilizer. Vultures get by on road kill, or carcasses left as high water recedes on the banks of the Missouri.

But the sight of the herd was so completely unexpected–this was south eastern South Dakota, fenced and farmed and fertile and fallow–and probably because it was so unexpected it was utterly disorienting. We had rounded a bend and there they were. We saw a few dozen head. Did they ever stampede? I certainly hoped so. A clap of thunder and hundreds of pounding hooves headed where not even they probably knew. Just running.

It was disorienting, like the last century and a half hadn’t happened. No Sioux Rebellion in 1862. No Little Big Horn. No Sand Creek. No Wounded Knee. The Yankton missed most of these. They’d signed a treaty early. But their young men snuck off to join the other Sioux, the Rosebud in 1862, the Lakota in 1876 . My wife had two ancestors killed at Custer’s Last Stand. Though their side was the last one standing. I wonder how many ancestors she had at Little Big Horn who weren’t killed. I have no idea.

I watched the herd. It lolled about behind a farm. A nice looking farm. We’d passed a number of farms. Some of the Yankton had done well adopting western ways. But looking at the bison–the buffalo–I got the feeling that deep down these people, these Yankton, never had lost their real selves. That herd there, hidden away from outsiders in the middle of the reservation, that was their real selves. They may have signed a treaty long, long before that put them here, along the Missouri River–we’d been driving through the bottomland, which the river had inundated only a week before–but they’d cheated, and hadn’t turned white. They’d taken our names–no more Appearance of Breath or Smoke Tallow or Waiting For the Wind–but that was all, that and language and the military and taxes and watching television. Politicians came through and promised funds for the roads which never happened (you’d swear Lewis and Clark had trod that beat up asphalt). Indian kids went to concerts in the little prairie city Yankton, an hour away. But that was all. That was just the outside. Inside, the buffalo herd beat like the heart of the tribe. Breathed for the whole people. Huddled together for warmth when the cold winds blew. After all the wars and pestilence and long hikes to desolate land the Yankton had survived.

I looked at my wife in the seat next to me. She was one of them. Her mother was Oneida but her dad had been Yankton Sioux. She, her sister and her brother were the first on either side to be born off reservation. And while she had the blood of both in her veins, the DNA of each, you can’t be both tribes, not by U.S. law. So her parents signed her up as Yankton Sioux. These were her people, this her land. Those were her buffalo. And I realized that after three decades, I barely knew her. I knew her, but not all of her. I hadn’t known about that herd. To her it was the most natural thing in the world to have a communal herd of bison. It made no sense not to have one.

I wondered what else I didn’t know about her. What secrets lie inside her. What about her is still Sioux, still a tad wild, maybe, and definitely not of the white man. Native Americans are different than you or I. It’s not just that they were here before us. It’s that not everyone wears European civilization perfectly. They don it like a nice silk suit, and get by pretty much unnoticed. But left to themselves they’d shed it all, all this western civilization, at least part of the time, and get back to their dances, their hunts, their storytelling. And their buffalo, too. A big bull bison looked my way and snorted.

Sometimes I think that the Sioux think that the white man and the black man and the Mexican man and Asian man and even a lot of the other red men will just up an disappear someday. They don’t tell us this, but they think it. And when we’re not around, they talk about it, about the dancing and the hunting, and telling their stories about the buffalo. About how we came once, from across the sea and through the tall prairie grass, an innumerable host of us, and then we disappeared and were replaced again by the vast herds of buffalo, who roam with the seasons north and south and east and west. And if you stop and listen, they’ll tell their young ones, and all is quiet, you can hear the disappeared’s spirits rustling in the wind, there, but not important. Listen…and all is silent but the wind rustling the prairie grass…and that will be us, the non-Sioux people. That’s all, just the sound of the wind.

Flag of the Yankton Sioux tribe.